Agricultural mechanization, which refers to the transformation of agriculture from the use of hand tools and livestock farming tools to the universal use of machines, is one of the important elements of agricultural modernization. Its refers to the process of using advanced and applicable agricultural machinery to equip agriculture, improve the conditions of agricultural production and operation, and continuously improve the production technology level and economic and ecological benefits of agriculture.
The use of machinery is a basic feature of modern agriculture, which has a significant role in using resources, resisting natural disasters, promoting modern agricultural technology, promoting agricultural intensive management, increasing yields and total production, improving agricultural labor productivity, reducing the cost of agricultural products, and reducing the labor intensity of farmers and narrowing the difference between workers and farmers.
The development of agricultural mechanization reflects the development of rural economy. Agricultural mechanization can assist farmers to complete daily production operations, and reduce farmers’ labor, improve labor efficiency and increase farmers’ income. It represents the transformation of agriculture from traditional to modern, but there are certain problems in the process of development. This paper summarizes the shortcomings of agricultural mechanization in the process of development, and puts forward views and suggestions for the current dilemma.
1 The main problems in the development of agricultural mechanization
At present, there are many problems in the development of agricultural mechanization in China that need to be solved, such as unreasonable structure of agricultural machinery, unbalanced development of agricultural mechanization, small degree of agricultural mechanization and lack of agricultural mechanization professionals.
1.1 Irrational structure of agricultural machinery
In recent years, China’s agricultural machinery and equipment has made significant development on the basis of technological progress, and the variety has been increasing, and the quality has been improving. But the structure of agricultural machinery equipment is not reasonable, more small machinery, less large and medium-sized machinery; more power class machinery, less supporting machinery; more planting machinery, less processing machinery; more food production machinery, less machinery for other crop production.
1.2 Uneven development of agricultural mechanization
China’s agricultural machinery in the production of the application and cultivation link of mechanization level is high, but the harvest link machinery is less. The mechanization development level in the eastern and developed urban suburbs is high, and the mechanization development level in the western remote areas is low.
1.3 Small degree of agricultural mechanization
Rural economic development is relatively slow, the production scale is small, and the low degree of social organization leads to a relatively slow growth of farmers’ production income, so the purchasing power is low. At the same time, the government’s support cannot timely relieve farmers’ purchasing pressure, making it difficult for farmers to purchase large-scale production of agricultural machinery and equipment, thus affecting the overall development of agricultural mechanization.
1.4 Lack of agricultural mechanization professionals
In the general situation of the vigorous development of agricultural mechanization, the lack of talents has restricted the healthy development of the cause of agricultural mechanization. The new historical period of the requirements of talents also correspondingly improved, more attention to the comprehensive agricultural mechanization talents.
2 countermeasures for the development of China’s agricultural mechanization
In order to make the development of China’s agricultural mechanization encountered problems can be effectively solved, should do the following aspects of work: First, the establishment of mechanization development of long-term mechanism; Second, the establishment of a full mechanization development service system; Third, improve the technical level of agricultural mechanization, increase the pace of development of agricultural mechanization; Fourth, the smooth development of agricultural mechanization work to lay a solid foundation.
2.1 Establish a long-term mechanism for mechanization development
The first thing to solve in establishing a long-term mechanism is the problem of farmers’ purchasing power. Due to low income and low capital accumulation, it is difficult to have funds to buy machines, which requires the government and financial institutions to relax their policies and increase support to solve the problem of farmers’ purchasing power; strengthen the development model of agricultural machinery. Agricultural machinery is a tool that can reduce farmers’ work intensity and improve production efficiency. Farmers to buy machinery is not only to meet the needs of agricultural production, but also a means to increase income.
2.2 Strengthen the service system construction of mechanization development
In response to the problem of unsound agricultural mechanization development system, we should innovate the service model, develop market resource allocation, and form a new market-led agricultural machinery service system. Vigorously develop agricultural machinery service organizations, encourage farmers to jointly use agricultural machinery, actively promote the industrialization of agricultural machinery services, and promote agricultural machinery sales, production operations and maintenance services to the next level.
2.3 Improve the technical level of agricultural mechanization and increase the pace of development of agricultural mechanization
Committed to the improvement of the level of agricultural machinery science and technology, vigorously research and develop new compound agricultural machinery, and close contact with major agricultural universities, agricultural machinery research institutes and agricultural machinery production enterprises, etc., to continuously improve the technical level of agricultural mechanization and accelerate the pace of development of China’s agricultural mechanization.
2.4 Committed to the cultivation of agricultural mechanization professionals to lay a solid foundation for the smooth development of agricultural mechanization
Talents play a vital role in all fields and are indispensable in the development of agricultural mechanization. Most of our agricultural machinery talents’ knowledge system is not updated in time, and their professional skills and comprehensive quality cannot meet the needs of agricultural machinery development.
In order to better develop the cause of agricultural machinery, we should first reserve professional talents to meet the high demand of agricultural mechanization development, and at the same time, we should improve the configuration of talents in the process of agricultural mechanization development.
Let more college students learn the knowledge related to agricultural mechanization for talent input; we should strengthen the training of existing talents in agricultural machinery engineering development to improve their skills and comprehensive quality for better application of agricultural machinery knowledge and skills.
China is a large agricultural country, agricultural development is the basis of China’s economic development. Therefore, agriculture should be fast and high-quality development, the basis of this development is the development of agricultural mechanization.
With the progress of science and technology, agricultural mechanization is bound to replace the original manual into agricultural production, and drive agricultural production to a more economical and reasonable direction.
Improve the scientific and technological content of agricultural mechanization, the integration of more scientific and technological knowledge into agricultural machinery, is the future development direction of China’s agricultural machinery.