September 8, 2022

Exploration of the reform of practical teaching system in the field of mechanical engineering

  At present, foreign mechanical engineering education is developing towards the trend of cultivating composite talents and engineering application ability. Students need not only solid basic knowledge, but also training in engineering practice, emphasizing understanding knowledge, mastering learning methods, and cultivating the ability to independently analyze and solve engineering practice. In the process of reforming teaching content and curriculum system, it is not only necessary to strengthen theoretical teaching and broad basic knowledge learning, but also to pay attention to engineering practice teaching link, which is an important way to improve the quality and ability of talents.

Therefore, when we train talents, the function and method of engineering design must be expanded from verifying theoretical knowledge to applying knowledge and cultivating ability, from imitating design to independent thinking and innovative design, from single design content to comprehensive design, and the new engineering practice teaching system of mechanical majors must be reconstructed, so how to build a perfect engineering practice teaching system and comprehensively It is very necessary to explore and practice the content and methods of engineering practice for the 21st century.

  I. The necessity of constructing a perfect engineering practice teaching system

  The experience of the world shows that it takes about 7~9 years to train a qualified engineer through the study of engineering science knowledge, training of engineering practice and work practice. After graduation, students need to work in enterprises for 3~4 years to get practical experience before they can become modern high-quality enterprise engineers.

Therefore, it is the main content of the reform of engineering practice teaching system to comprehensively reform engineering practice teaching, vigorously strengthen the cultivation of engineering practice ability, and strive to highlight the professional characteristics.

  Therefore, it is the main content of the reform of engineering practice teaching system to comprehensively reform the engineering practice teaching, vigorously strengthen the cultivation of engineering practice ability, and strive to highlight the characteristics of the major. The role of each practical teaching link in the overall cultivation goal is clearly defined.

Through the joint action of teaching and practice, pay attention to the cultivation of innovation consciousness and innovation ability, and penetrate into the whole process of personnel cultivation, adhere to the direction of combining production, study and research, and gradually form a perfect engineering practice teaching system which can reflect the basic, systematic, practical and modern teaching contents.

  Ways and methods to construct all-round engineering practice activities

  1、All-round arrangement of practical teaching activities

  Comprehensive and systematic arrangement of practical teaching links means that different practical teaching links are arranged in each semester to ensure uninterrupted engineering practice training for four years.

In terms of experimental teaching, we reduce the verification experiments, update the experimental contents, open design, comprehensive and innovative experimental projects in a planned way, fully mobilize students’ autonomy and develop their thinking potential; internship, as a practical link for training students, is a compulsory course in all institutions of higher education.

It plays a very important role in the training of students’ quality and the education of students on machinery manufacturing equipment and technology, especially the training of operation and programming ability of modern equipment such as CNC machine tools, and the familiarity of advanced manufacturing process, so the focus should be put on the combination of theory and practice, so that students can master the skills learned through more production practice, to achieve both hardware and software; strengthen Course design link, the establishment of course design series, increase the comprehensive design, encourage the reform of course design teaching content.

Focus on the cultivation of students’ comprehensive ability, set at least one comprehensive course design in each major; graduation design should focus on strengthening the training of modern design methods and innovation ability, strengthen the cultivation of students’ scientific and technological thesis writing ability, and at the same time should be integrated with the society into engineering consciousness and economic views.

  2、Establish a perfect management system

  The management of engineering practice is a systematic project, and its content should be reflected by the system, which should be accurate, reasonable, feasible and convenient.

First of all, the scope of responsibility and content of management departments at all levels should be clarified and rationalized, and the construction direction, focus and main tasks of engineering practice in each link and each stage should be clarified, and the work and management system should be established and improved, so that the management can be standardized and institutionalized;

Secondly, network technology provides the basis and conditions for the scientific management of the operation status of experimental instruments, material management and statistics, information exchange and updating of management means. It can improve the service level of engineering practice, promote the rational allocation and optimization of equipment and human resources, improve the efficiency of laboratory and equipment and instruments, improve the grade, speed and comprehensiveness of management, and also help the leadership to make assessment, analysis and decision.

  3、Reform the methods and means of engineering practice teaching

  Mechanical engineering is a profession with strong practicality and the goal of cultivating applied talents in engineering technology. Therefore, every aspect of teaching must be matched with corresponding engineering practice teaching to strengthen students’ understanding of theoretical knowledge, and also to cultivate students’ practical hands-on ability.

Under the circumstance of limited experimental equipment and relatively poor practice conditions, the author proposes the following suggestions and ideas to change the traditional synchronous teaching method of “timed and fixed” by introducing computer technology and modern education technology, and to build a new mode of engineering practice teaching to solve the problems in terms of teaching methods and means:

  (1) Purchasing or recording videos or CDs of high-performance processing equipment, advanced manufacturing process and production management of large modern manufacturing enterprises can give students an intuitive image of engineering practice and a deeper understanding of the application of modern manufacturing technology in enterprises, especially to broaden students’ horizons, make them clearly understand the status of engineering practice in manufacturing industry, enhance students’ confidence in learning, cultivate their interest and improve their confidence. Students’ interest and enthusiasm will be enhanced.

  (2) with the help of computers and high-end graphics software (such as Solidworks, Pro/Engineer), the use of virtual reality technology, the development of CNC machine tools and their programming simulation system, such as JIBIC CNC teaching system, on the computer simulation of CNC machine control system, operation, programming and machining process, fault detection; the use of, LABVIEW software, development of virtual instruments, virtual simulation system.

  (3) implant multimedia technology, CAI engineering practice teaching, the practical teaching of the operation steps, essentials and techniques, as well as the practice of microscopic organization, structural changes, the formation process difficult to describe in language in the form of animation to visualize, in order to improve the starting point of teaching and teaching information, improve the quality of teaching.

  (4) Exploring the mode of cooperative education and changing the single mode of training into a flexible and diverse mode of training. Cooperative education is a kind of education mode that combines on-campus study and off-campus work, through the establishment of internship bases with local enterprises or sending students to enterprises for a year of practical training “three plus one teaching (i.e. three years of school teaching plus one year of enterprise teaching)”, or each academic year is set for a three-semester system, in which two semesters are spent on campus and one semester is spent off campus. The purpose is to strengthen the connection between theory and practice in the learning process, improve students’ ability to solve practical problems, and provide opportunities for students to have extensive contact with society, accumulate work experience, and be successfully employed after graduation.

  4、Actively carry out the second classroom activities

  To plan to open institutional innovation design, product design, electronic design, packaging design and other elective courses; guide students to carry out a variety of physical and mental health, expand their knowledge, expand their horizons, develop their abilities, cultivate their morale, and carry out independent experiments, independent design, independent internships and other independent practical teaching activities with students as the main body, in order to improve the overall ability and quality of students To organize students to participate in various academic exchange activities to expand their horizons, inspire scientific thinking, create conditions to guide students to a variety of scientific research activities, they can participate in the scientific and technological innovation activities organized by the Association of University Students, but also to participate in the scientific research work of teachers;

To actively organize various scientific and technological competitions, advocate students to participate in scientific research activities, and promote students to gradually realize the combination of learning knowledge and engineering practice.

Through the second classroom activities, carry out collective independent practical education activities and extra-curricular scientific research activities with students as the main body and center, such as CAI design competition, computer drawing competition, mechanical innovation design competition, to cultivate students’ engineering design ideas, the spirit of daring to innovate, and the ability to analyze and solve practical engineering problems.

  5、Cultivate a group of well-trained teachers

  Teachers who participate in guiding engineering practice and theoretical teachers who guide innovation training should coordinate with each other, carefully plan out each link of practical teaching, prepare excellent practical teaching materials, and solve many practical problems such as conception, design and technology encountered by students in the process of engineering practice and innovation.

It is not easy to do this work well. On the one hand, teachers themselves must keep learning and practicing, on the other hand, school leaders should fully realize the importance of strengthening engineering practice, and train a group of teachers with profound theoretical knowledge, rich experience, strong practical ability, good moral ability, courageous dedication and well training in a planned way. Only in this way can we ensure the quality of engineering practice teaching and provide solid intellectual support and teacher guarantee for the cultivation of talents.

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